The Constitution makes the following provisions with regard to the borrowing powers of the Centre and the states:
The Central government can borrow either within India or outside upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of India or can give guarantees, but both within the limits fixed by the Parliament. So far, no such law has been enacted by the Parliament.
Similarly, a state government can borrow within India (and not abroad) upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of the State or can give guarantees, but both within the limits fixed by the legislature of that state.
The Central government can make loans to any state or give guarantees in respect of loans raised by any state. Any sums required for the purpose of making such loans are to be charged to the Consolidated Fund of India.
A state cannot raise any loan without the consent of the Centre if there is still outstanding any part of a loan made to the state by the Centre or in respect of which a guarantee has been given by the Centre.