Government of India Act 1935
The Act marked a second milestone towards a completely responsible government in India. It was a lengthy and detailed document having 321 Sections and 10 Schedules.
Features of the Act
- It provided for the establishment of an All-India Federation consisting of provinces and princely states as units. The Act divided the powers between the Centre and units in terms of three lists
- Federal List (for Centre, with 59 items),
- Provincial List (for provinces, with 54 items) and
- the Concurrent List (for both, with 36 items).
- Residuary powers were given to the Viceroy. However, the federation never came into being as the princely states did not join it.
- It abolished dyarchy in the provinces and introduced ‘provincial autonomy’ in its place. The provinces were allowed to act as autonomous units of administration in their defined spheres. Moreover, the Act introduced responsible governments in provinces, that is, the governor was required to act with the advice of ministers abo responsible to the provincial legislature. This came into effect in 1937 and was discontinued in 1939.
- It provided for the adoption of dyarchy at the Centre. Consequently, the federal subjects were divided into reserved subjects and transferred subjects. However, this provision of the Act did not come into operation at all.
- It introduced bicameralism in six out of eleven To provinces. Thus, the legislatures of Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Bihar, Assam, and the United Provinces were made bicameral consisting of a legislative council (upper house) and a legislative assembly (lower house). However, many restrictions were placed on them.
- It further extended the principle of communal representation by providing separate electorates for depressed classes (scheduled castes), women and labour (workers).
- It abolished the Council of India, established by the Government of India Act of 1858. The secretary of state for India was provided with a team of advisors.
- It extended the franchise. About 10 per cent of the total population got the voting right.
- It provided for the establishment of a Reserve Bank of India to control the currency and credit of the country.
- It provided for the establishment of not only a Federal Public Service Commission but also a Provincial Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service Commission for two or more provinces.
- It provided for the establishment of a Federal Court, which was set up in 1937.